What Type Of Shackle Should Be Used For Hoisting Loads?
Lifting materials and goods with lifting equipment require a lot of concentration and discipline because it must be done with approved slings and shackles only. I recently received training to become a health and safety representative and to do inspections on lifting gear, I am going to write about a question that I had: What type of shackle should be used for hoisting loads?
Hoisting loads pose a range of dangers from injuries to property damage and needs to be done with the correct lifting gear. There are 2 types of shackles that should be used in hoisting loads, they are Bow-type shackles and D-type shackles. They are used with different shackle pin combinations.
Before my training, I didn’t realize that there were so many aspects to consider when it comes to lifting machines and the proper hoisting gear that is needed. I was so intrigued by the question that I did further research and spoke to experts. I will share the information in this article.
Type Of Shackle Used For Hoisting Loads
Choosing the correct shackle for hoisting loads requires careful consideration in terms of the following factors:
- Shackle type
- Quality and safety records and compliance to certain standards.
- Shackle suitability in relation to the task.
- Shackle pin configurations.
The above-listed factors play a huge role in making sure that the most suitable lifting shackle is used for hoisting loads. Each of these factors will be discussed under its own headings.
Types Of Shackles For Hoisting Loads
Two types of shackles are used when hoisting loads. They are Bow-type shackles and D-type shackles. These shackles are designed to be used as connectors between different components of a lifting system. Here is some extra information on them:
D-type Shackle Used For Hoisting
This type of shackle is called a D shackle because if it is turned to one of the sides it looks like the letter D. D-type shackles are used to connect slings to the load that needs to be hoisted. D-type shackles are designed to accommodate thicker slings with ease.
D-type shackles come in a variety of sizes and designs with specific applications in mind and proper training is needed to make sure that users know and understand those applications. All hoisting equipment including D-type shackles needs to be rated for lifting.
It is important to inspect all lifting equipment and material including D-type shackles before use as well as periodically. More on the legal aspects of D-type shackles will follow a bit later in this post, but before that, here is more information on the other type of shackles that can be used for hoisting loads.
Bow-type Shackle Used For Hoisting
This type of shackle is identifiable by the more rounded appearance at the bottom with a smaller throat opening on the side where the shackle pin goes. The design of the Bow-type shackle makes hoisting a lot easier because the load eases into the rounded part of the shackle.
Bow-type shackles also come in different sizes with the application in mind and all the rules that apply to D-type shackles will also apply to the Bow-type shackles. The next part of the post is about the legal aspects that come with hoisting loads with different lifting equipment and materials which includes the shackles.
Legal Compliance For Hoisting Loads With Shackles
When hoisting any load with lifting equipment and materials which include shackles it is important to stay within the frame of the law. Here is some information on the legal aspects of doing this.
The Occupational safety and health act is the US labor law to govern the federal law of occupational safety and health in the federal government and the private sector anywhere in the United States of America.
The Occupational Health And Safety Administration (OSHA) is the agency formed by congress to set and enforce standards in terms of safety and health in the workplace. This agency works with another agency called the National Institute for Occupational and Health (NIOSH).
The National Institute for Occupational Health is the federal agency that was established to ensure suitable working conditions by providing research, training, information and education in the field of occupational safety and health.
Hoisting any loads with shackles requires full compliance with the Act and the standards set by the federal agencies. The next part looks at some of these standards.
Safety And Quality Standards For Shackles Used For Hoisting
This section will cover some of the standards that need to be followed when hoisting loads with Shackles. The first one is the OSHA 1926.251 standard that deals with the equipment requirements of material handling which includes the shackles that are used for hoisting loads, here are some of the points from this standard :
- Inspections should be done before using hoisting equipment and it must be withdrawn from use if any defects are noted. The use of a pre-use checklist helps with this.
- Employers must ensure that rigging equipment is marked with readable tags that include the manufacturer data and safe working loads and that the equipment is used according to the readable tag.
- Employers must ensure that overloading does not happen and that when equipment does not have a tag, the equipment is not used. When the equipment is not used it must be removed from the work area and stored in a suitable place.
There is of course other info about slings and other hoisting equipment as well in the rest of this standard but it is too vast to mention in this post, so if this is helpful then it is strongly suggested that it is downloaded and studied by the user of shackles when hoisting loads.
Here is an example of a checklist for shackles:
|Item and criteria||Criteria Met||Criteria not met|
|One of the first things you should check for is the pin and body identifications/markings. Body: The markings on the body tell you about the manufacturer (trademark or name), rated load limit, and the size of the shackle. These markings are forged, cast, or die-stamped on the body. Pin: The pin markings also tell you about the manufacturer and rated load limits, along with the grade and type of the material used to make it. They are also forged, cast, or die-stamped on the pin.|
|Identification tags are readable|
|Are there any signs of elongation?|
|Are there any signs of corrosion or pitting?|
|Are there any signs of twisting?|
|Are there signs of cracking?|
|Are there signs of heat damage?|
Another important standard is the ANSI/ASME B30.26 standard.B30.26 is applying to the construction and installation, the operation, the inspection, and the maintenance of removable rigging hardware used for load handling tasks in joint operations with equipment as described in different volumes of the B30 Standard.
The hardware referred to in this standard is hoisting shackles, lifting links, hoisting rings, hoisting swivels, lifting turnbuckles, hoisting eyebolts, hoist rings, wire clips on wire rope, wedging sockets, load indication devices, and rigging blocks.
Once again it can be seen that the standards are so vast that it requires people to be properly trained to understand them and make informed decisions about the correct shackles that must be used for hoisting loads. The next section has extra information about the suitability of shackles to make these decisions easier so read on.
Choosing A Suitable Shackle For Hoisting Loads
Selecting the most suitable shackle and other lifting gear, for hoisting loads are essential in any lifting operation, making the wrong choice can have many unwanted outcomes. So here is some tips to help make the decision easier:
- Make sure that the load that needs to be hoisted is not heavier than the rated capacity of the lifting machine, the slings, or the shackles.
- Inspect the lifting machine, the slings, and the shackles before attempting to hoist anything. Make sure that all the components have adequate capacity ratings for what needs to be hoisted.
- Choose compatible slings to go with the shackles that were chosen, make sure that the shackle pins will be able to close properly without snagging. Choose the most suitable shackle based on the size and the information on the tag.
- D-type shackles and Bow-type shackles should only be used with approved shackle pins. A normal bolt and nut were not made to carry so much weight so do not alter or modify any lifting gear.
- Make sure that the shackle is attached to a safe point to be able to execute a safe hoist. Example of a safe point is an eye bolt. The shackle should be seated in position, and the slings secured correctly.
- Record any problems with shackles or any other lifting gear on the checklist, do not use it. Report it to the responsible person and wait for relevant instructions.
- If the shackles and the other lifting gear passed inspections and the user is satisfied that the lift will be done safely then hoisting can go ahead.
Hoisting loads with unsuitable or unsafe shackles and other lifting gear should not be attempted. Great care should be taken to do hoisting of loads as safely as possible without causing accidents. The next part of the post is about different shackle pin configurations.
Different Type Of Shackle Pin Options For Hoisting Loads
It is known by now that there are 2 types of shackles that are used for lifting operations but what some people do not know is that there are different shackle pin configurations based on where in the lifting system the shackle will be used, they are screw pin and bolt and nut pin. Here is some information on the shackle pin options for the shackles used in hoisting loads:
D-type Shackle Using A Screw Pin
The screw pin configuration on a D-type shackle is mostly used for temporary connections on the anchor sides of the load that will be hoisted meaning that it is connected on the load side. A D-type shackle is preferred when a chain sling is used for the lift.
D-type Shackle Using A Bolt And Nut Pin
The bolt and nut pin configuration on a D-type shackle is used for points that require a more permanent connection, meaning that these shackles will be used at the top closest to the hook of the lifting machine, as with D-type screw pin configurations a chain sling will be the preferred choice of sling to be used with this shackle.
Bow-type Shackle Using A Screw Pin
The screw pin configuration on a Bow-type shackle is mostly used for temporary connections on the anchor sides of the load that will be hoisted meaning that it is connected on the load side. A Bow-type shackle is preferred when a synthetic sling is used for the lift.
Bow-type Shackle Using A Bolt And Nut Pin
The bolt and nut pin configuration on a Bow-type shackle is used for points that require a more permanent connection, meaning that these shackles will be used at the top closest to the hook of the lifting machine, as with Bow-type screw pin configurations a synthetic sling will be the preferred choice of sling to be used with this shackle.
When using shackles for hoisting loads it is important to select the correct configuration and to inspect the shackles and all the other lifting gear. It is crucial to use shackles that are made for hoisting and that are clearly identifiable by the tags. Using shackles that are not made for hoisting will result in accidents that could lead to property damage or even death to people.
The D-type and the Bow-type shackles should be used with suitable pin configurations when hoisting loads. I hope that the information in this post will be helpful in giving the users of shackles and lifting gear a better insight into this subject.